# Basic Concepts and Theory of Motion

### From FSUPhysicsWiki

In quantum mechanics, all information about the system of interest is contained in its wave function, . Physical properties of the system such as position, linear and angular momentum, energy, etc. can be represented via linear operators, called observables. These observables are a complete set of commuting Hermitian operators, which means that the common eigenstates (in the case of quantum mechanics, the wavefunctions) of these Hermitian operators form an orthonormal basis. Through these mathematical observables, a set of corresponding physical values can be calculated.

In order to clarify the paragraph above, consider an analogous example: Suppose that the system is a book, and we characterize this book by taking measurements of the dimensions of this book and its mass (The volume and mass are enough to characterize this system). A ruler is used to measure the dimensions of the book, and this ruler is the observable operator. The length, width, and height (values) from the measurements are the physical values corresponding to that operator (ruler). For measuring the weight of the book, a balance is used as the operator. The measured mass of the book is the physical value for the corresponding observable. The two observable operators (the ruler and the mass scale) have to commute with each other, otherwise the system can not be characterized at the same time, and the two observables can not be measured with infinite precision.

In quantum mechanics, there are some measurements that cannot be done at the same time. For example, suppose we want to measure the position of an electron. What we would do is send a signal (a gamma ray, for example), which would strike the electron and return to our detectors. We have, then, the position of the electron. But as the photon strikes the electron, the electron gains additional momentum, and our simultaneous momentum measurement can not be precise. Therefore both momentum and position cannot be measured at the same time. These measurement are often called "incompatible observables." This is explained in the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and implies, mathematically, that the two operators do not commute.

This concept contrasts with classical mechanics, where the two observables that do not commute with each other can still be measured with infinite precision. This is because of the difference in dimension of the object: macroscopic (classical mechanics) and microscopic scale (quantum mechanics). However, the prediction of quantum mechanics must be equivalent to that of the classical mechanics when the energy is very large (classical region). This is known as the Correspondence Principle, formally expressed by Bohr in 1923.

We can explain this principle as follows. In quantum mechanics, bound particles such as electrons in atoms cannot have arbitrary values of energy, only certain discrete values of energy. There are quantum numbers corresponding to specific values of energy and states of the particle. As the energy gets larger, the spacing between these discrete values becomes relatively small and we can regard the energy levels as a continuum. The region where the energy can be treated as a continuum is what is called the classical region.